The long-term impact of exposure to air pollution on health is evident. Recently, the team led by Dongni Hou from the Department of Respiratory Medicine at Zhongshan Hospital, affiliated with Fudan University, found that short-term (daily) exposure to air pollutants is also associated with a decline in lung function in adults. The study collected health data from 4,764 residents of Shanghai, and the researchers used statistical methods to convert the air quality in Shanghai into daily levels. Through analysis, the researchers discovered a correlation between the decline in lung function among the volunteers and daily exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. It is worth noting that air pollutants have an impact on the ventilation function of the upper airway, middle airway, and lower airway, but the correlation between pollutants and decreased ventilation in the lower airway is more pronounced in males. The researchers also found a correlation between the five air pollutants, namely PM2.5, PM10, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and a decrease in the number of neutrophils in the volunteers’ blood. This study suggests that short-term high-dose exposure to air pollutants also has a significant negative impact on human lung function.